Value is the lightness or darkness of a color.
It is very important in creating forms and shapes. If values contrast, shapes will appear to separate in space and some will stand out from the others.
Hue is the pure spectrum colors (red, orange, yellow, green, blue, violet)
An example of color values:
The light almost white color of the flower blossom to the right with the light values of its stem seems to be very close to you, almost reaching out of the picture. As the stem goes back into the vase, its color (value) gets darker and darker, shadows seem to appear and the darker areas seem to recede into the distance. You can see the same thing happening with the peach wall color. Closest to the vase and reaching flower it has the lightest value and as it “recedes” into the area under the frame it gets darker.
If values are close, shapes will seem to flatten out, and seem closely connected in space; none will stand out from the others.
Traditionally all hues are based on the Primary Colors (red, blue, yellow). This system is also used in teaching color theory. But there are other Primaries to be considered.
When I’m creating my art, however, I am using Light Primaries ( red, blue, and green). They aren’t light in color; this is referring to light rays. Because I work on a computer monitor, I have the basic RGB computer screen light system to create with. If all the Light Primaries are mixed together the result is white. If the Primary Colors (RBY) are mixed together, the result is usually a black.
When I’m printing my images my primaries are magenta, cyan (turquoise), and yellow. So, in my art, I’m painting with light and printing with pigment both of which has a different system for classifying color hues.
There are also Complementary Colors that are opposite one another on the hue circle. When complements are mixed with one another in paint, the hues will become dull and de-saturated.
The complements can also be classified as warm or cool. Red, Orange, Yellow are all warm colors. Blue, Green, and Violet at cooler hues. Warm-cool contrasts can cause images to appear to advance or recede. A red object on a blue background will appear closer. But, hues near each other will blend and harmonize with their neighbors. In the flower clip above, the greens and oranges make a soothing and enjoyable image since they are near each other on the color wheel.